Document Type


Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences




Nicotine is the psychoactive agent involved in nicotine dependence. However, nicotine as a drug and its effects on human psychology are largely under-investigated in genetic studies. In this study, we recruited 208 current non-smokers to evaluate the effect of nicotine and its relationship to genetic risks to nicotine dependence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, as well as measurement invariance testing, were conducted to evaluate the latent factor structures of the POMS, PANAS and DEN questionnaires across 3 nicotine doses. Structural models were used to examine the effects of nicotine and their relationship to genetic risks of nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine administration led to the change of both measurement construct and factor means, indicating the causal effect of nicotine on the psychological responses. The genotypes of rs588765 predicted the scores of the DEN Confused and Dizzy factors (p = 0.0003 and 0.001 respectively) and rs16969968 and rs588765 were associated with the PANAS Nervous factor (p = 0.006 and 0.007 respectively). Our study suggested that genetic risk of nicotine dependence is associated with acute psychological responses. The integration of psychometric analyses and dose effects could be a powerful approach for genetic study of nicotine dependence.

Source Citation

Chen, X., Aggen, S., Chen, J. et al. Genetic Risks to Nicotine Dependence Predict Negative Mood and Affect in Current Non-Smokers. Sci Rep 5, 9521 (2015).


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.