Document Type


Publication Date



School of Pharmacy


Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy


Objective. To examine sex differences in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among adults with multiple chronic conditions. Methods. This study used a cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were interviewed in 2012 and the reference period for the questions in the survey varied from 1 week to 12 months prior to the interview date. The study included adults (age > 21 years) with no missing data on CAM use variables and who had multiple chronic conditions. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the association between sex and CAM use. Results. A significantly higher percentage of women compared to men had ever used CAM (51.5% versus 44.3%); women were more likely to have ever used CAM (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.35–1.65). Among CAM users, a higher percentage of women compared to men used CAM in the past 12 months (53.5% vs. 42.7%); women were more likely to use CAM in the past 12 months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.49–1.97). Factors associated with CAM use in the past 12 months were different for men and women; income and obesity were associated with CAM use in the past 12 months among women and not among men. Conclusion. Among adults with multiple chronic conditions, women were more likely to use CAM as compared to men.

Source Citation

Alwhaibi, M., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2016). Sex Differences in the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, 1–8.


Copyright © 2016 M. Alwhaibi and U. Sambamoorthi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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