Document Type


Publication Date



School of Public Health


Occupational & Environmental Health Sciences



Accurate assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence and treatment response is an important prerequisite of personalized therapy in lung cancer. This study extends a previously described non-small cell lung cancer prognostic model by the addition of chemotherapy and co-morbidities through the use of linked SEER-Medicare data.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Data on 34,203 lung adenocarcinoma and 26,967 squamous cell lung carcinoma patients were used to determine the contribution of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to prognostication in 30 treatment combinations. A Cox model including COPD was estimated on 1,000 bootstrap samples, with the resulting model assessed on ROC, Brier Score, Harrell’s C, and Nagelkerke’s R2 metrics in order to evaluate improvements in prognostication over a model without COPD. The addition of COPD to the model incorporating cancer stage, age, gender, race, and tumor grade was shown to improve prognostication in multiple patient groups. For lung adenocarcinoma patients, there was an improvement on the prognostication in the overall patient population and in patients without receiving chemotherapy, including those receiving surgery only. For squamous cell carcinoma, an improvement on prognostication was seen in both the overall patient population and in patients receiving multiple types of chemotherapy. COPD condition was able to stratify patients receiving the same treatments into significantly (log-rank p<0.05) different prognostic groups, independent of cancer stage.


Combining patient information on COPD, cancer stage, age, gender, race, and tumor grade could improve prognostication and prediction of treatment response in individual non-small cell lung cancer patients. This model enables refined prognosis and estimation of clinical outcome of comprehensive treatment regimens, providing a useful tool for personalized clinical decision-making.

Source Citation

Putila J, Guo NL (2014) Combining COPD with Clinical, Pathological and Demographic Information Refines Prognosis and Treatment Response Prediction of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100994.


© 2014 Putila and Guo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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