Document Type


Publication Date



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Sport and Exercise Psychology


This report examines the impact of a psychoeducational workshop on athletes’ stages of change for use of mental skills training. Fourteen teams participated in a sport psychology workshop including seven women’s teams (n = 124) and seven men’s teams (n = 96). Teams were assessed on decisional balance (pros and cons) and stages of change variables before and after the workshop. As hypothesized, athletes reported significantly higher pros and contemplation scores after the workshop, with corresponding decreases in cons and precontemplation scores. Moderate effect sizes (.35 - .68) supported a positive impact of the workshop on athletes’ perceptions of mental training, but data were not collected on how long these effects may last. The results also suggest that research should explore more efficient methods for stage assignment for athletes to maximize intervention effectiveness.

Source Citation

5. Zizzi, S., & Perna, F. (2003).Impact of a brief workshop on stages of change profiles in athletes. Athletic Insight: Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 5(4)



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