Document Type


Publication Date



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Sport and Exercise Psychology



Psychological variables have been shown to be related to athletic injury and time missed from participation in sport. We are unaware of any empirical examination of the influence of psychological variables on time to onset of injury. Objective:

To examine the influence of orthopaedic and psychosocial variables on time to injury in college athletes. Patients or Other Participants:

One hundred seventy-seven (men  =  116, women  =  61; age  =  19.45 ± 1.39 years) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s):

Hurdle regression analysis (HRA) was used to determine the influence of predictor variables on days to first injury. Results:

Worry (z  =  2.98, P  =  .003), concentration disruption (z  =  −3.95, P < .001), and negative life-event stress (z  =  5.02, P < .001) were robust predictors of days to injury. Orthopaedic risk score was not a predictor (z  =  1.28, P  =  .20). Conclusions:

These findings support previous research on the stress-injury relationship, and our group is the first to use HRA in athletic injury data. These data support the addition of psychological screening as part of preseason health examinations for collegiate athletes.

Source Citation

Sibold, J., & Zizzi, S. (2012). Psychosocial Variables and Time to Injury Onset: A Hurdle Regression Analysis Model. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(5), 537–540.



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