Document Type


Publication Date



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Division of Plant and Soil Sciences


Floriculture crops can lose their aesthetic quality due to water deficit during postproduction. Calcium is a secondary messenger in plant stress signaling, and the treatment of calcium has been proposed to alleviate damage by various abiotic stresses. The objective of this research was to evaluate application methods of calcium to delay plant wilting under water deficiency in three species of bedding plants: viola (Viola cornuta), impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), and petunia (Petunia grandiflora). Three application methods were compared including spray, drench, and pre-drench. Calcium was applied as CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2 at three concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 mM. The effect of calcium on shelf life was species-dependent, increasing shelf life in viola and impatiens, but not in petunia. Viola showed increased shelf life up to 154% and 400% in drench and pre-drench applications, respectively, compared to the control. In impatiens, spray and pre-drench applications delayed wilting symptoms by 53% and 200%, respectively. Comparing calcium sources, CaCl2 was the most effective as a drench, while Ca(NO3)2 pre-drench application effectively delayed wilting. There was no difference between CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2 in spray application. These results provided the optimum application methods to delay plant witling and the potential of calcium application on enhancing water deficit tolerance in floriculture crops.

Source Citation

Park, S.; Waterland, N.L. Evaluation of Calcium Application Methods on Delaying Plant Wilting under Water Deficit in Bedding Plants. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1383.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cite.

This article received support from the WVU Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.