Author ORCID Identifier


Document Type


Publication Date



Statler College of Engineering and Mining Resources


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Artificial intelligence based chemistry models are a promising method of exploring chemical reaction design spaces. However, training datasets based on experimental synthesis are typically reported only for the optimal synthesis reactions. This leads to an inherited bias in the model predictions. Therefore, robust datasets that span the entirety of the solution space are necessary to remove inherited bias and permit complete training of the space. In this study, an artificial intelligence model based on a Variational AutoEncoder (VAE) has been developed and investigated to synthetically generate continuous datasets. The approach involves sampling the latent space to generate new chemical reactions. This developed technique is demonstrated by generating over 7,000,000 new reactions from a training dataset containing only 7,000 reactions. The generated reactions include molecular species that are larger and more diverse than the training set.

Source Citation

Tempke, R., Musho, T. Autonomous design of new chemical reactions using a variational autoencoder. Commun Chem 5, 40 (2022).


This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit

This article received support from the WVU Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.