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School of Pharmacy


Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy


Introduction: The prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among Asian Indians is unknown. This study estimated and compared moderate–serious PD in Asian Indians and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in the United States.

Methods: We used a cross-sectional design using the National Health Interview Survey (2012–2017). Adult (age >18 years) NHWs and Asian Indians (N=2,218) were included. PD was measured using the six-item Kessler (K6) scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of Asian Indian ethnicity with PD.

Results: In the analysis, 19.9% of NHWs and 11.0% of Asian Indians reported moderate–serious PD. Asian Indians were less likely to report PD in both unadjusted (unadjusted odds ratio=0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42–0.58) and fully adjusted (adjusted odds ratio=0.7; 95% CI 0.59–0.82) models.

Conclusions: Asian Indians had a lower prevalence of PD than NHWs, likely due to multiple protective factors such as high socioeconomic status and lower multimorbidity.


This Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License [CC-BY] (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article received support from the WVU Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.



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