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Very sensitive 21 cm H i measurements have been made at several locations around the Local Group galaxy M31 using the Green Bank Telescope at an angular resolution of 9.′1, with a 5σ detection level of N{sub H} {sub i} = 3.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} for a 30 km s{sup −1} line. Most of the H i in a 12 square-degree area almost equidistant between M31 and M33 is contained in nine discrete clouds that have a typical size of a few kpc and a H i mass of 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙}. Their velocities in the Local Group Standard of Rest lie between −100 and +40 km s{sup −1}, comparable to the systemic velocities of M31 and M33. The clouds appear to be isolated kinematically and spatially from each other. The total H i mass of all nine clouds is 1.4 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} for an adopted distance of 800 kpc, with perhaps another 0.2 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} in smaller clouds or more diffuse emission. The H i mass of each cloud is typically three orders of magnitude less than the dynamical (virial) mass needed to bind the cloud gravitationally. Although they have the size and H i mass of dwarf galaxies, the cloudsmore » are unlikely to be part of the satellite system of the Local Group, as they lack stars. To the north of M31, sensitive H i measurements on a coarse grid find emission that may be associated with an extension of the M31 high-velocity cloud (HVC) population to projected distances of ∼100 kpc. An extension of the M31 HVC population at a similar distance to the southeast, toward M33, is not observed.« less

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Wolfe, Spencer A.., Lockman, Felix J.., & Pisano, D. J.. (2016). Sensitive 21 Cm Observations Of Neutral Hydrogen In The Local Group Near M31. The Astrophysical Journal, 816(2), 81.