Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Learning Sciences and Human Development

Committee Chair

Allison Swan Dagen

Committee Co-Chair

Charline Barnes-Rowland

Committee Member

Aimee Morewood

Committee Member

Patricia Obenauf

Committee Member

Karen Petitto


Education reform has been on a new path over the last 15 years; a path that leads to more accountability, more choice for students and parents, highly qualified teachers, as well as, best practices in instruction. In an effort to move along the path of reform and as a result of previous reform, the 2004 reauthorization of IDEA reviewed the field of literacy instruction and disability determination.;They found that the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) discrepancy model was problematic and often put students in a position of waiting to fail due to the fact that placement often did not occur until students had passed through the primary grades. One of the most sweeping reform efforts designed to impact student achievement can be found in the Response to Intervention (RTI) initiative. RTI is an innovative approach to literacy and language instruction that is designed to deliver instruction in a three-tiered delivery model with increasing levels of intensity.;The purpose of this study was to gauge the implementation level of the nationally mandated RTI initiative in three West Virginia (WV) counties with respect to the following stakeholders - classroom teachers, reading specialists, special education teachers, and principals. The following areas---Assessment, Instruction, Collaboration and Problem Solving, Professional Development, and Special Education Referral and Eligibility procedures---were used to assess implementation. Data were collected using a survey instrument designed using language presented in the WV Department of Education RTI project.;Little common ground was found between administrators and teachers on multiple areas of implementation. While this was highlighted within the survey results, the survey did not solicit specific reasons for the lack of congruence. The use of effective communication implies that schools that implement RTI successfully, spend necessary time in collaboration with all stakeholders. Burns and Gibbons (2012) agreed that the discussion about RTI must continue to inform decision making.;Within the survey results, patterns emerged with regard to the following areas: personnel, time constraints and scheduling, professional development, appropriate funding and resource allocation.;Survey results concluded that stakeholder position does effect perceived implementation status and that numerous variables impact implementation. Within the survey results, patterns emerged with regard to the following areas: personnel, time constraints and scheduling. While it is clear from the survey results that the elements of time, staffing, and funding are problematic; it is also evident that school administrators are unaware of these concerns as corroborated by the disjointed responses from administrators and teachers.