# A study on supereulerian digraphs and spanning trails in digraphs

Spring

2022

Dissertation

PhD

## College

Eberly College of Arts and Sciences

Mathematics

Hong-Jian Lai

John Goldwasser

Rong Luo

Charis Tsikkoui

Brian D. Woerner

## Abstract

A strong digraph D is eulerian if for any v ∈ V (D), d+D (v) = d−D (v). A digraph D is supereulerian if D contains a spanning eulerian subdigraph, or equivalently, a spanning closed directed trail. A digraph D is trailable if D has a spanning directed trail. This dissertation focuses on a study of trailable digraphs and supereulerian digraphs from the following aspects.

1. Strong Trail-Connected, Supereulerian and Trailable Digraphs. For a digraph D, D is trailable digraph if D has a spanning trail. A digraph D is strongly trail- connected if for any two vertices u and v of D, D posses both a spanning (u, v)-trail and a spanning (v,u)-trail. As the case when u = v is possible, every strongly trail-connected digraph is also su- pereulerian. Let D be a digraph. Let S(D) = {e ∈ A(D) : e is symmetric in D}. A digraph D is symmetric if A(D) = S(D). The symmetric core of D, denoted by J(D), has vertex set V (D) and arc set S(D). We have found a well-characterized digraph family D each of whose members does not have a spanning trail with its underlying graph spanned by a K2,n−2 such that for any strong digraph D with its matching number α′(D) and arc-strong-connectivity λ(D), if n = |V (D)| ≥ 3 and λ(D) ≥ α′(D) − 1, then each of the following holds. (i) There exists a family D of well-characterized digraphs such that for any digraph D with α′(D) ≤ 2, D has a spanning trial if and only if D is not a member in D. (ii) If α′(D) ≥ 3, then D has a spanning trail. (iii) If α′(D) ≥ 3 and n ≥ 2α′(D) + 3, then D is supereulerian. (iv) If λ(D) ≥ α′(D) ≥ 4 and n ≥ 2α′(D) + 3, then for any pair of vertices u and v of D, D contains a spanning (u, v)-trail.

2. Supereulerian Digraph Strong Products. A cycle vertex cover of a digraph D is a collection of directed cycles in D such that every vertex in D lies in at least one dicycle in this collection, and such that the union of the arc sets of these directed cycles induce a connected subdigraph of D. A subdigraph F of a digraph D is a circulation if for every vertex v in F, the indegree of v equals its outdegree, and a spanning circulation if F is a cycle factor. Define f(D) to be the smallest cardinality of a cycle vertex cover of the digraph D/F obtained from D by contracting all arcs in F , among all circulations F of D. In [International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 8 (2019) 12-19], it is proved that if D1 and D2 are nontrivial strong digraphs such that D1 is supereulerian and D2 has a cycle vertex cover C′ with |C′| ≤ |V (D1)|, then the Cartesian product D1 and D2 is also supereulerian. We prove that for strong digraphs D1 and D2, if for some cycle factor F1 of D1, the digraph formed from D1 by contracting arcs in F1 is hamiltonian with f(D2) not bigger than |V (D1)|, then the strong product D1 and D2 is supereulerian.

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#### DOI

https://doi.org/10.33915/etd.11329