Author ORCID Identifier



Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



School of Nursing


Not Listed

Committee Chair

Jennifer Mallow

Committee Member

Christy Barnhart

Committee Member

Kesheng Wang

Committee Member

Maria D'Errico


Background: PPE training is essential to prevent transmission of infections or autoinoculation of infections among healthcare providers and patients. Student nurses play a vital role in infection control practices to protect themselves and patients from transmittable infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an innovative teaching and learning strategy known as virtual reality simulation in teaching proper PPE use in comparison to more traditional learning.

Research Questions: This study aimed to answer three research questions: (1) What is the acceptability among faculty of using a head mounted VRS to train undergraduate nursing students in the proper donning, doffing, and disposing of PPE compared to standard teaching modalities? (2) What is the feasibility and acceptability among students of using a head mounted VRS in proper donning, doffing, and disposing of PPE? (3) What is the efficacy of using a head mounted VRS for PPE use on the accuracy, clinical judgement, fear, and reported self-confidence among sophomore baccalaureate nursing students compared to standard teaching modalities?

Methods: A small group evaluation design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a newly developed training module. Using head mounted VRS, donning, doffing, and disposing of various types of personal protective equipment (PPE) among 38 undergraduate nursing students at West Virginia University was evaluated. Measures included the Accuracy Checklist, Lasater Clinical Judgement Scoring Sheet for Virtual Patients, Student Satisfaction and Confidence in Learning Scale, and the Fear Affect Fixed Form Ages 18+ v2.0. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 26. Analysis was conducted using chi-square test for independence to analyze differences between groups at each time point and ANOVA to analyze differences between groups over three time points.

Results: Analysis of results showed a decrease in fear from time one to time two and an increase in accuracy, self-confidence, and clinical judgement for those using the head mounted VRS over three time points.

Conclusions: The study findings indicate that VRS improves accuracy, increases clinical judgement, and increases self-confidence among sophomore undergraduate nursing students. This type of teaching modality is preferred by students and increases knowledge attainment. Future studies should consider a longer amount of time for learning to inquire if this improves accuracy in donning, doffing, and disposing of PPE. Future studies should also consider more in-depth scenarios to assess clinical judgement among undergraduate nursing students.