Author ORCID Identifier



Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources


Civil and Environmental Engineering

Committee Chair

Kakan Dey

Committee Member

Dimitra Pyrialakou

Committee Member

Yoojung Yoon

Committee Member

Ashish Nimbarte

Committee Member

Abhik Roy


Many large cities face significant challenges in providing safe, economical, equitable, reliable, and efficient mobility services. Moreover, mobility service options have been changing unprecedentedly due to the advent of emerging mobility services. Understanding the impacts of emerging mobility services (e.g., for-hire vehicles, bike sharing) on other travel modes (e.g., transit, non-motorized modes, personal car) and evolving travel behavior is critical to promote sustainable modes for urban residents and reduce auto-dependency. New York City (NYC) has been conducting annual mobility survey since 2017 to understand the emerging travel behavior and mode choice characteristics. This dataset presents a unique opportunity for conducting research on the effects of emerging mobility services and the mode choice behavior of urban residents. This dissertation investigates emerging travel behavior in NYC to promote sustainable mobility and reduce auto-dependency. Three specific research objectives are to- i) identify factors that influence the choice of sustainable and non-sustainable modes, ii) identify factors affecting mode shift behavior of city residents between transit and other modes, and iii) investigate the impacts of for-hire-vehicles (FHVs) and bike sharing services on transit ridership.

Discrete choice modeling approach was adopted to identify factors influencing sustainable and non-sustainable mode choice. NYC residents with positive attitudes toward sustainable modes were more likely to use sustainable modes. Sustainable modes usage decreased with personal vehicle ownership. People with a higher level of education showed lower usage of non-sustainable modes. Increasing ADA compatibility of sustainable travel modes and associated transportation infrastructure could increase sustainable mode use among people with a disability. Residents of four boroughs in NYC (i.e., Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, and Staten Island) were found to use non-sustainable modes significantly higher compared to Manhattan residents. Borough-specific targeted initiatives could increase sustainable mode attractiveness in all NYC boroughs. Negative attitudes towards transit services were significant factors in mode shift. Improving transit service reliability, enhancing comfort and safety, and increasing accessibility could improve users’ attitudes toward transit services. Accessibility of personal vehicles increased the mode shift from transit use. People with higher education were less likely to shift from transit. In addition, emerging modes significantly influenced the mode shift from transit.

Negative binomial (NB) models with the Bayesian estimation technique were developed to study emerging mobility services' impacts on transit ridership. The number of FHV end trips within a subway station (quarter-mile distance) was found positively associated to higher transit ridership. FHV trips ending within subway station area act as first-mile connections and increased transit ridership. Marking designated areas for FHV trip pick-up and drop-off near all transit stations could improve the first and last-mile connection to transit and help increase the transit ridership. Citi Bike trips ending within a subway station service area did not significantly affect transit ridership. Bike sharing network should be well-connected to subway stations to encourage more people use the bike-sharing system to access the subway stations. By increasing the quantity of DOT bike racks near subway stations, NYC could develop a bike-supportive transportation system.

This dissertation advanced the understanding of emerging travel behavior among residents in NYC and the impacts of emerging mobility services on transit ridership. Transportation agencies and policymakers can develop critical policies and investment decisions based on the identified significant factors to promote sustainable modes and reduce auto-dependency. Moreover, the research findings can be used to create a safe and sustainable mode-friendly environment and improve transit services that could increase positive attitudes/perceptions among city residents towards sustainable modes and increase transit ridership.

Embargo Reason

Publication Pending

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Available for download on Friday, July 26, 2024