Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Forest Resource Management

Committee Chair

Joseph McNeel

Committee Member

Curt Hassler

Committee Member

Gloria Oporto


Hardwoods in the Appalachian region are traditionally destined for use in furniture, cabinetry, pallets, and railroad ties. The expanding market for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is an opportunity for increased utilization of low-quality hardwoods typically used in pallets or equipment mats. Large quantities of low-grade red oak (Quercus rubra) and red maple (Acer rubrum) to be used in CLTs would provide sufficient lumber sources that could foster the growth of CLT manufacturing facilities in the state of West Virginia or Appalachia all together. The objective of this study was to determine the yield distribution of visual structural grade quality lumber from low grade NHLA lumber (No. 2A, No. 2B, No. 3A, and No. 3B Common lumber) of both red oak and soft maple. In addition to the NHLA grade, visual structural grades were assigned to the lumber by a grader certified by the Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association (NELMA) and the same boards underwent flatwise testing to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE b) through non-destructive tests (NDT). This was completed to determine if proof-loading could be an alternative grading method to visual grading. The results of the study indicated that 45.0 percent of red oak NHLA grades 2 common and lower met the minimum visual grade requirements stated in ANSI/APA PRG 320 (2020) to be used in the manufacture of CLT panels. The population of soft maple had 54.4 percent meet these same requirements. The most common defects for red oak were knots before surfacing four sides (S4S) and splits after S4S. In soft maple, knots were the most common defects before and after S4S. The yield of lumber meeting the minimum MOE of 1.2x106 psi requirement stated in ANSI/PRG-320 (2020) was 96.0 percent of red oak and 97.0 percent of soft maple. These results indicate that low grades of red oak and soft maple could be used in the production of CLT panels and additional studies into producing CLT panels from these common species would be beneficial.