Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Athletic Training

Committee Chair

Michelle A. Sandrey

Committee Co-Chair

Damien Clement

Committee Member

Allison Hetrick


Context: Baseball athletes need to maintain a strong core for functional activities. The core not only transfers the energy from the hips to the throwing arm, but maintains stability and can decrease injury rates. There are several tests represented in the literature to measure core stability, but none have been advocated to use for baseball. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Sahrmann lower abdominal core stability in baseball. Design: The study was conducted as a prospective test re-test design. Setting: The testing took place at one location and only one clinician administered the testing. Data collection took place at the athletic facilities on the campus of a Division II Mid-Atlantic University. Patients and Other Participants: A totally of 30 participants from a D-II baseball program will be used for this study. The subjects were 19.73+/-1.41 year's old, 83.93+/-6.94 kg in weight and 180.68+/-5.06 cm in height. All participants volunteered for the study and were current players encompassing a variety of positions, and were injury free within 6 months. Interventions: The participants were asked to complete as much of the Sahrmann lower abdominal core stability test correctly. There was no warm up prior to testing. The testing protocol was demonstrated and there was a training period consisting of 2 sub-max trials. The data was collected over a two week period. Main Outcomes Measures: The dependent variable was the result of the Sahrmann lower abdominal core stability test. Results: Overall, the ICC score for the Sahrmann lower abdominal test was ICC33,1=0.649 (95% confidence interval =.257 to .832, P=.003). This ICC value reflects moderate reliability for the Sahrmann lower abdominal test. The standard error of the measurement (SEM) value that is reported is SEM=0.302, which would be described as low. Conclusions: Until further studies are conducted it is difficult to determine whether Sahrmann lower abdominal core test is a valid core stability test because there is no core stability gold standard. Determining a gold standard to measure core specifically may be difficult. There are multiple concepts and philosophies about core, stability, strength, endurance, and power. The Sahrmann core stability test has moderate reliability when used with Division II baseball athletes at one institution.