Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Learning Sciences and Human Development

Committee Chair

Richard T. Walls.


This study examines the relationship between a history of milk A/I in infancy and intelligence in later childhood. Participants included 74 male and female children ages 3 years to 12 years, referred for psychological evaluation. Background information gathered from the primary caregiver included history of milk A/I in infancy. The Wechsler Scales of Intelligence provided information on the participants level of cognitive functioning. Findings were significant for both ANOVA and chi square analysis, with children in Group One (milk A/I) demonstrating lower IQ scores than children in Group Two (no milk A/I). The findings also suggest a relationship between milk A/I and impairment in verbal skills with a greater disparity between Verbal IQ, as opposed to Performance IQ, for percent of children falling below the cut-off scores for both below average and borderline IQ. The reported history of milk A/I was also shown to be significantly higher among those children referred for psychological evaluation (58%) as opposed to children in the general population (5%).;Discriminant analysis revealed Performance IQ subtests to be useful predictors of history of milk A/I with a 70.8% hit-rate. Verbal IQ subtests were useful predictors of milk A/I with a hit-rate of 72.1%. Two subtests together, Arithmetic and Coding, were also useful predictors with a hit-rate of 73.6%. The current findings also reveal significantly lower IQ scores for males with milk A/I history than for males with no such history. Females with milk A/I show no significant disadvantage compared to females with no milk A/I. Thus, gender is suggested as a determining factor in the relationship between milk A/I and intelligence.;The research supports the conclusion a history of milk A/I in infancy is related to below average intelligence in later childhood. Further supported is the proposed connection between a reported history of milk A/I in infancy and being referred for psychological evaluation in later childhood.