Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Physical Education Teacher Education

Committee Chair

Andrew C. Ostrow.


The present study assessed the construct validity of the Sport Disengagement Questionnaire (SDQ) through a series of factor analyses and examined demographic variables in relation to total SDQ scores. The overall sample was comprised of 400 collegiate athletes representing five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities and one NCAA Division II university across a total of 17 varsity sports. The participants completed either a pencil/paper (n = 253) or an online (n = 147) version of the 36-item SDQ and a demographic sheet. Three separate reliability analyses, interfactor correlation analyses, and factor analyses were conducted: one for the pencil/paper sample, one for the online sample, and one for the combined pencil/paper and online samples. It was hypothesized that the SDQ contained six factors named Career/Future Planning, Achievement Satisfaction, Personal Investment, Social Dynamics, Athletic Identity, and Health/Fitness. The resulting factor structures were analyzed, and although slightly different, were deemed to be similar enough for overall conclusions regarding the factor structure of the SDQ to be formulated. Overall, support for five SDQ factors and 25 items was found. These factors were Health/Fitness, Career/Future Planning, Achievement Satisfaction, Athletic Identity, and Investment. Follow-up reliability and interfactor correlation analyses were conducted utilizing these final items. In addition, several analyses utilizing demographic variables were also performed. A MANOVA indicated that there were differences on several of the SDQ factor scores on the basis of gender and class standing. Males perceived less difficulty in adjusting to sport disengagement on the Health/Fitness factor while females perceived less difficulty in adjusting to sport disengagement on the Career/Future Planning and Achievement Satisfaction factors. In addition, older student athletes perceived less difficulty in adjusting to sport disengagement on the Career/Future Planning, Athletic Identity, and Investment factors compared to younger student athletes. A t-test revealed differences in satisfaction scores between the pencil/paper and online samples. The online sample reported greater satisfaction with the convenience of completing the study materials compared to the pencil/paper sample. Recommendations for future psychometric work on the SDQ are addressed.