Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling & Counseling Psychology

Committee Chair

James W. Bartee.


This research was designed to investigate the diagnostic utility of the Bender Gestalt II (BGII) test using the Bender Global Scoring System (BGSS) and the Koppitz 2 scoring systems. The scores from these two systems were correlated with scores derived from the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Lifetime Edition (KSADS-PL+), a semistructured interview along with Longitudinal Evaluation of all Available Data (LEAD) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 115 children and adolescents who initially participated in the study to assess the validity of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt II test as a screening instrument in psychological decision making, 75 completed all protocols and the relevant data were entered into the subsequent analysis. A correlational design was employed, and a post hoc test was used to incorporate Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis into the findings. Results from both the Bender Gestalt II Global Scoring System and Koppitz 2 scoring systems showed moderate correlations with results from the CBCL on the symptom categories of aggressive behaviors, depressed behaviors, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. However, the Koppitz 2 Emotional Indicators scoring measure did not accurately discriminate for the presence or absence of psychopathology. The Koppitz 2 Total Error score was found to be modestly correlated with receiving a diagnosis of ADHD. None of the other diagnoses based on results from KSADS-PL+ with LEAD showed any significant correlations with the Koppitz 2 Total Error Score. Adding Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis for sensitivity and specificity, improved the diagnostic likelihood ratio from 50% to 66% for ADHD diagnosis using the Koppitz 2 Emotional Indicators. The main hypothesis that the Bender Gestalt II would improve diagnostic accuracy of psychopathology was not supported. The unexpected finding that the BGII is useful in diagnosing ADHD indicates a possible direction for future research.