Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



School of Dentistry


Not Listed

Committee Chair

Mark Richards.


Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the heat generated in bone by one implant drill system with and without using surgical drill guides. Temperature elevation during guided surgery was compared to that of conventional drilling in bovine femur specimens. Significant differences in temperature elevation between conventional osteotomy and guided surgical osteotomy were examined.;Materials and Methods: Conventional and Surgically guided osteotomies were performed in 117 randomized measurements with K type thermocouples in an in-vitro study using bovine cortical bone. Using an internally and externally irrigated implant system, intermittent drilling at 2- second intervals at a constant speed of 2,000 rpm was performed with the aid of a drill press. Drills were replaced after every 20 uses. Maximum temperatures at T1 (5mm) and T2 (10mm) were recorded with computer software with and without a surgical guide within 1 mm distance from the osteotomy site. Thermocouple distances were measured after each preparation using a digital caliper. Total drilling time was recorded for both experimental conditions. Using recordings from the computer software, time interval above 47°C was measured for both guide and no guide and at both thermocouple depths.;Results: Higher maximum temperatures at both 5 mm and 10 mm were found with the use of surgical guides. Longer time interval of temperature elevations above 47°C was found when using a surgical guide. Finally, the drill time for both guide and no guide was found to be the same. Additionally, thermocouple distances were kept at a constant distance from the osteotomy site.;Conclusion: We conclude that the use of surgical guides generated more heat than conventional implant drilling. Significant differences were found at maximum temperatures and threshold levels with and without the use of surgical guides. Further studies need to be conducted to establish methods of controlling elevated temperatures when guides are used in surgery.