Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Animal and Nutritional Sciences

Committee Chair

Janet Tou

Committee Co-Chair

Vagner Benedito

Committee Member

Vagner Benedito

Committee Member

Joseph Gigliotti

Committee Member

Joseph Moritz

Committee Member

Kang Mo Ku


Apple pomace is a “waste” byproduct of apple processing that causes environmental pollution and is costly to dispose of. Yet, apple pomace is rich in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Analysis of apple pomace’s nutritional profile indicates suitability as a potential dietary treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is the most prevalent liver disease in the world with prevalence and severity expected to increase in both adults and children. Currently, there is no approved drug treatment for NAFLD and therefore, dietary intervention is the primary treatment. The study objectives were to determine the effect of apple pomace consumption on diet-induced NAFLD, NASH and renal and bone health using a rodent model. Growing (aged 22-29 d) female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group) were fed ad libitum diets consisting of AIN-93G, AIN-93G with 10% apple pomace substitution (AIN/AP), Western diet (45% fat, 34% sucrose), or Western diet with 10% apple pomace substitution (Western/AP) for 8 weeks. Results showed Western diet consumption increased (pp

reaction (RT-qPCR) showed rats consuming Western diet upregulated hepatic expression of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), which was attenuated by apple pomace. Rats consuming Western diets also had upregulated nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Further, gonadal adipose tissue expression of NFκB, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was significantly upregulated compared to all groups contributing to progression of NAFLD to NASH. The results suggest increased gonadal adipose also increased transport of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in NASH progression. Apple pomace attenuated Western diet-induced NAFLD due to the high fiber content in apple pomace increasing (p