Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Physical Education Teacher Education

Committee Chair

Andrea Taliaferro

Committee Co-Chair

Sean Bulger

Committee Member

Sean Bulger

Committee Member

Eloise Elliott

Committee Member

Yoav Kaddar

Committee Member

Stephanie Lorenze


Background: Teachers' use of classroom physical activity (PA) has been found to significantly impact students PA participation, time on task, and academic performance. However, teachers have continued to identify barriers affecting delivery related to professional development opportunities, learning environment, and experiences in practice. An understanding of the connection between these experiences and their impact on teacher change is needed.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions of specific factors that have influenced their continued implementation of classroom PA. This study provides insight into the teacher perceptions, and aims to identify connections among orientation to learning and learning change that have supported this practice.

Design & Methodology: This research employed two rounds of data collection and used Opfer et al.'s (2011) model of teacher change as a guiding theoretical framework. First, a questionnaire was administered to teachers (n=26) who had experience integrating movement into the academic classroom. Next, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (n=6) who have experienced success in continued delivery for three or more years, had implemented three or more days a week, and used both PA breaks and content-rich/standards-based PA. Round One data analysis included frequency and measure of central tendency. Round Two data analysis included transcription, an inductive coding approach, jotting and memoing, and member checking.

Results: Survey results indicated that professional development, student reactions, and beliefs and attitudes of classroom PA had the greatest influence on teachers’ continued use of classroom PA. Five main areas of influence were identified: (a) social and environmental influences, (b) professional development, (c) integration practices, (d) student reactions, and (e) teacher beliefs and attitudes.

Conclusion: Results of this study provide insights into the connections of influential factors on teachers’ implementation of classroom PA and sustained use. This study provides a framework for further investigation in order to support teachers’ continued use of classroom PA.

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Survey of Earned Doctorates Certificate of Completion