Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



School of Dentistry



Committee Chair

Michael Bagby


Objectives. To investigate the frictional resistance of two new ceramic brackets, two self-ligating bracket, and one standard stainless steel bracket with several methods of ligation. The size and composition of the archwires will also be varied. The wires used are all stainless steel and the sizes are .018, 19X25, and 21X25. The frictional forces obtained in this study will be more useful when compared in a relative manner to one another, as opposed to the actual forces that will be measured. Methods. Each bracket and wire was placed in an Instron machine and tested for 120 seconds. During this time period the archwire was pulled superiorly both with and without variable tipping angles introduced to the wire. The bracket and wire combination also had variable methods of ligation, stainless steel, alastic, and self ligation. The data was then analyzed to see the friction averages for each test. Results. The data was separated into two groups, Experiment 1 and 2. This was done to compare the non-self ligating brackets to the self-ligating brackets since they already have ligation built in. Therefore Experiment 1 included all brackets and Experiment 2 only included the non-self ligating brackets. ANOVA found significant differences in Experiments 1 and 2. Experiment 1 was significant at the wire, bracket ligature system (BLS), wire-bracket ligature system, stage, and wire-stage. Experiment 2 was significant with the bracket and ligation.