Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



School of Public Health


Occupational & Environmental Health Sciences

Committee Chair

Michael McCawley

Committee Co-Chair

Anna Allen

Committee Member

David Parke

Committee Member

Gregory Schaefer

Committee Member

Sijin Wen


Health Care workers (HCWS) must handle with a variety of occupational exposure. One significant exposure for HCWS in a hospital and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers in out of hospital expose to blood and bodily fluids during the performance of their duties , resulting in concerns regarding transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To manage the unpleasant effects of exposure to blood and bodily fluids, HCWs including EMS providers and other health care occupations must completely comply with standard precautions (SPs) recommendations and to attend continuing education regarding blood borne pathogens. In this study, the extent of knowledge, consistency, and practices of SPs were assessed and characteristics of rural and urban EMS providers that predicted lacking compliance with SPs were explored. In addition, this study assessed knowledge of EMS providers regarding Needle stick injuries. Finally, this study evaluated blood and bodily fluids exposure incidents among HWCs in hospital in general.