## Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

2018

Dissertation

PhD

#### College

Eberly College of Arts and Sciences

Mathematics

Hong-Jian Lai

Rong Luo

Jessica Deshler

#### Committee Member

Zachariah Etienne

James Nolan

Cun-Quan Zhang

#### Abstract

1. Group connectivity. Let A be an abelian group and let iA(G) be the smallest positive integer m such that Lm(G) is A-connected. A path P of G is a normal divalent path if all internal vertices of P are of degree 2 in G and if |E(P)|= 2, then P is not in a 3-cycle of G. Let l(G) = max{lcub}m : G has a normal divalent path of length m{rcub}. We obtain the following result. (i) If |A| ≥ 4, then iA( G) ≤ l(G). (ii) If | A| ≥ 4, then iA(G) ≤ |V(G)| -- Delta(G). (iii) Suppose that |A| ≥ 4 and d = diam( G). If d ≤ |A| -- 1, then iA(G) ≤ d; and if d ≥ |A|, then iA(G) ≤ 2d -- |A| + 1. (iv) iZ 3 (G) ≤ l(G) + 2. All those bounds are best possible.;2. Modulo orientation. A mod (2p + 1)-orientation D is an orientation of G such that d +D(v) = d--D(v) (mod 2p + 1) for any vertex v ∈ V ( G). We prove that for any integer t ≥ 2, there exists a finite family F = F(p, t) of graphs that do not have a mod (2p + 1)-orientation, such that every graph G with independence number at most t either admits a mod (2p+1)-orientation or is contractible to a member in F. In particular, the graph family F(p, 2) is determined, and our results imply that every 8-edge-connected graph G with independence number at most two admits a mod 5-orientation.;3. Neighbor sum distinguishing total coloring. A proper total k-coloring &phis; of a graph G is a mapping from V(G) ∪ E(G) to {lcub}1,2, . . .,k{rcub} such that no adjacent or incident elements in V(G) ∪ E( G) receive the same color. Let m&phis;( v) denote the sum of the colors on the edges incident with the vertex v and the color on v. A proper total k-coloring of G is called neighbor sum distinguishing if m &phis;(u) ≠ m&phis;( v) for each edge uv ∈ E( G ). Let chitSigma(G) be the neighbor sum distinguishing total chromatic number of a graph G. Pilsniak and Wozniak conjectured that for any graph G, chitSigma( G) ≤ Delta(G) + 3. We show that if G is a graph with treewidth ℓ ≥ 3 and Delta(G) ≥ 2ℓ + 3, then chitSigma( G) + ℓ -- 1. This upper bound confirms the conjecture for graphs with treewidth 3 and 4. Furthermore, when ℓ = 3 and Delta ≥ 9, we show that Delta(G)+1 ≤ chit Sigma(G) ≤ Delta(G)+2 and characterize graphs with equalities.;4. Star edge coloring. A star edge coloring of a graph is a proper edge coloring such that every connected 2-colored subgraph is a path with at most 3 edges. Let ch'st(G) be the list star chromatic index of G: the minimum s such that for every s-list assignment L for the edges, G has a star edge coloring from L. By introducing a stronger coloring, we show with a very concise proof that the upper bound of the star chromatic index of trees also holds for list star chromatic index of trees, i.e. ch'st( T) ≤ [3Delta/2] for any tree T with maximum degree Delta. And then by applying some orientation technique we present two upper bounds for list star chromatic index of k-degenerate graphs.

COinS

#### DOI

https://doi.org/10.33915/etd.5750