Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling & Counseling Psychology

Committee Chair

Christine J Schimmel

Committee Co-Chair

James W Bartee

Committee Member

Jeffrey Daniels

Committee Member

Monica Leppma

Committee Member

Vanessa Shannon


While there are several person-environment fit vocational theories, Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA; Lofquist & Dawis, 1969) distinguishes itself by emphasizing the role of the work environment, not just the individual characteristics, in order to establish "mutual responsiveness" through career transitions. One particular population found both in popular media and peer-reviewed research to have potentially troublesome transitions are student-athletes and their transition out of collegiate sport, despite having the ability to plan for it before graduation. Some researchers have used TWA for those preparing for retirement (Harper & Shoffner, 2004; Hesketh et al. 2011), but no research to date has examined the use of TWA's elements with student-athletes "retiring" from sport. The purpose of the study was to explore the opinions of those who work with collegiate student-athletes and gain a consensus on the importance, applicability, and potential use of core elements of TWA. A three-round modified online Delphi panel was used and included experts (those with at least 10 years) in the fields of academic advising, sport psychology, and counseling psychology. The resulting data explored what is currently being discussed and generated a collective expert opinion on the use of TWA with student-athletes.