Date of Graduation
Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Detailed experimental research was conducted to explore the impact of the addition of gaseous fuels, including H2 and natural gas (NG), and engine load on the emissions of NO2, NO, and NOx from dual fuel engines. The addition of less than 2% of H2 or NG was shown to dramatically increase the emissions of NO2 until a maximum level of NO2 emissions was reached. The increased NO 2 emissions were due to the conversion of NO to NO2. The maximum NO2/NOx ratio obtained with the addition of H2 was 3.2 to 5.0 times that of diesel operation. The maximum NO 2/NOx ratio obtained with the addition of NG was 3.4 to 4.3 times that of diesel operation. Further increasing the amount of gaseous fuel beyond the point of maximum NO2 emissions resulted in a reduction of NO2 emissions. Detailed examination of factors having the potential to affect the formation of NOx and NO2 in compression ignition engines reported a firm correlation between the emissions of NO 2 and emissions of unburned H2 and methane (CH4), and their relative emissions. The presence of unburned gaseous fuels that survived the main combustion process appears to be one of the main factors contributing to the enhanced conversion of NO to NO2. This was supported by the experimental data reported in the literature. The presence of fumigation fuels outside the diesel spray plume might be the main factor contributing to the increased emissions of NO2 from dual fuel engines. The spontaneous combustion of fumigation fuels that are entrained into the diesel spray plume may not contribute to the increased emissions of NO 2. In comparison, the correlations between the increased emissions of NO2 and the variation in bulk mixture temperature and heat release process including maximum heat release rate, and combustion duration were weak.;A single zone, zero-dimensional, constant volume numerical model with detailed chemistry was used to simulate the oxidization process of the gaseous fuel, as well as its effect on the conversion of NO to NO2 after the post-combustion mixing of the gaseous fuel surviving the main combustion process with the NOx-containing combustion products. The gaseous fuel examined included CH4, H2, and carbon monoxide (CO). The simulation results revealed the significant effects of the fuel mixed, its initial concentration in the mixture, and the initial temperature on the oxidization of gaseous fuel, the conversion of NO to NO2, and the destruction of NO2 to NO after the completion of the oxidation process.;The single zone zero-dimensional model was further modified to a variable volume model with the volume of the combustion chamber calculated using the geometry of the 1999 Cummins engine and engine speed. The modified variable volume model with detailed chemistry was used to improve the simulation of the effect on the conversion of NO to NO2 of the post-combustion mixing of surviving gaseous fuel with NOx-containing combustion products. The spatial variation of the local bulk mixture temperature with the progress of the combustion process and the variation of cylinder volume during the expansion process was taken into account by a pseudo temperature at the top dead center (TDC) noted as Tpseudo TDC defined in this research. The simulation identified the importance of the phasing of postcombustion mixing on the oxidation of gaseous fuel and its effect on the conversion of NO to NO2.;A preliminary sensitivity analysis was also conducted to identify the reactions having significant effect on the conversion of NO to NO2 and its destruction to NO. Among the four reactions associated with the formation and destruction of NO2, R186 was identified as the main reaction to the formation of NO2 during the oxidation process of H 2 and CO. This was due to the high concentration of HO2 formed during the oxidation process of H2 and CO in the combustion product. The destruction of NO2 to NO occurred through R187 and R189. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Liu, Shiyu, "An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions Characteristics of Compression Ignition Dual Fuel Engines" (2013). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 6101.