Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences



Committee Chair

JoNell Strough

Committee Co-Chair

Barry Edelstein

Committee Member

Patricia Haught

Committee Member

Julie Hicks Patrick

Committee Member

Natalie Shook


The current study investigated balanced time perspective (BTP) in adults across the life span (N = 400, 43.3% males). Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004) defined BTP as the flow and flexibility of connecting to the past, living in the present, and looking forward to the future and argued that is an optimal time perspective associated with happiness and well-being. Using Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2012), younger (M = 26.09 years), middle-aged (M = 46.72 years), and older (M = 64.25 years) adults subjective ratings of their positive and negative attitudes towards the past, present, and future were used to identify individuals who had a BTP.;Construct validity of the measure of BTP, Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2012) firstly used in BTP literature, was addressed by examining convergent validity and discriminant validity. The past and future (positive and negative) subscales demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. However, the present (positive and negative) subscales did not demonstrate convergent validity, as the subscales were weakly correlated with other co-construct measures, (e.g., present hedonistic subscale in Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Also, the present subscales did not demonstrate discriminant validity as the subscales were strongly correlated with other cross-construct measures (e.g., subjective well-being, Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985, r = .85 with present positive, and -.83 with present negative subscales). The present time attitude subscales appeared to correspond to subjective well-being.;Since Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2012) was adapted from prior research on adolescents, the current study investigated the measurement invariance of the measure across age groups of young, middle-aged, and older adults. A multi-group analysis indicated that the Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2012) was invariant across age groups at the weak (factor loading) level, suggesting that the Time Attitude Scale could be used in adult across the life span sample. Age differences in time attitude were found in positive and negative attitudes towards the future when each subscale was examined separately. Older adults viewed their future as more negative and less positive, compared to younger and middle-aged adults, in accord with prior research. A cluster analysis using the six (3 time frame---past, present, future x 2 valence---positive, negative) subscales indicated four distinct time attitude profiles: balanced (52%), negative past (15%), uncertain (22%), and negative (11%). Age differences were not found in membership in any of the four profiles. Associations between BTP and indicators of positive psychological well-being revealed that BTP was significantly positively related to global well-being, optimism, ego resiliency, and subjective health, but not to decision making outcomes.