Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Communication Studies

Committee Chair

Nicholas D Bowman

Committee Co-Chair

Elizabeth L Cohen

Committee Member

Keith Weber


Combining auditive, visual, and textual elements in a unique way, music videos are currently one of the most popular and viral forms of entertainment media. Narrative music videos, in particular, engage their viewers by visually communicating the meaning of a song and its lyrics, which possibly employs them as a useful tool to communicate social, political and cultural messages to a broad audience, and implicates their social and cultural relevance. The purpose of this study was to test whether visual presentations of song narratives (as in music videos) foster a more transporting, engaging, enjoyable, and appreciative entertainment experience than listening to songs alone. Results disconfirm this notion. Songs by themselves were found to be more narratively engaging than in combination with music videos. Levels of enjoyment differed across transportation and engagement levels, but not across song presentations. Appreciation was both directly and indirectly related to song presentation. Practical implications and follow-up research are discussed.