Date of Graduation
Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Marc C Besch
Ross H Ryskamp
Heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines are the primary propulsion systems used within the freight transportation sector and are subjected to stringent emissions regulations. The primary objective of this study is to develop a robust calibration technique for HD engine optimization in order to meet current and future regulated emissions standards during certification cycles and off-cycle vocation activities. Recently, California - Air Resources Board (C-ARB) has also shown interests in controlling off-cycle emissions from vehicles operating in California by funding projects such as the Ultra-Low NOx study by Sharp et. al . Moreover, there is a major push for the complex real-world driving emissions testing protocol as the confirmatory and certification testing procedure in Europe and Asia through the United Nations - Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). This calls for more advanced and innovative approaches to optimize engine operation to meet the regulated certification levels.;A robust engine calibration technique was developed using dual-layered multi-objective genetic algorithms (D-MOGA) to determine necessary engine control parameter settings. The study focused on reducing fuel consumption and lowering oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, while simultaneously increasing exhaust temperatures for thermal management of exhaust after-treatment system. The study also focused on using D-MOGA to develop a calibration routine that simultaneously calibrates engine control parameters for transient certification cycles and vocational drayage operation. Several objective functions and alternate selection techniques for D-MOGA were analyzed to improve the optimality of the D-MOGA results.;The Low-NOx calibration for the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) which was obtained using the simple desirability approach was validated in the engine dynamometer test cell over the FTP and near-dock test cycles. In addition, the 2010 emissions compliant calibration was baselined for performance and emissions over the FTP and custom developed low-load Near-Dock engine dynamometer test cycles. Performance and emissions of the baseline calibrations showed a 63% increase in engine-out brake-specific NOx emissions and a proportionate 77% decrease in engine-out soot emissions over the Near-Dock cycle as compared to the FTP cycle. Engine dynamometer validation results of the Low-NOx FTP cycle calibration developed using D-MOGA, showed a 17% increase brake-specific NOx emissions over the FTP cycle, compared to the baseline calibrations. However, a 50% decrease in engine-out soot emissions and substantial increase in exhaust temperature were observed with no penalties on fuel consumption.;The tools developed in this study can play a role in meeting current and future regulations as well as bridging the gap between emissions during certification and real-world engine operations and eventually could play a vital role in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in areas such as the port of Los Angeles, California in the South Coast Air Basin.
Padmavathy, Pragalath Thiruvengadam, "Dual-layered Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (D-MOGA): A Robust Solution for Modern Engine Development and Calibrations" (2017). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 7116.