Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling & Counseling Psychology

Committee Chair

James Bartee

Committee Member

Jeffrey Daniels

Committee Member

Margaret K. Glenn

Committee Member

Cecil Pollard

Committee Member

Joseph R. Scotti


Depressed smokers are a group of individuals whose health and overall functioning can benefit from interventions aimed to enhance well-being. Researchers have recently found significant relations between positive affect and smoking cessation success, and between low affect and smoking relapse, and unsuccessful abstinence (Cook et al., 2010; Leventhal et al., 2008, 2009; Niemiec, 2010). The examination of the effects of happiness interventions for a population considered to be “underserved” has only just begun (Borrelli, 2010, p. 2; Kahler et al., 2013). In this study, the independent variable was a happiness intervention and the outcome variables were psychological well-being and motivation to quit smoking. Using motivation to quit as a definition of success for smokers, this study included smokers who could benefit from treatment, yet who may not be ready to begin smoking cessation treatment. Smokers with depression who were interested in self-administering a happiness intervention, known at West Virginia University as the chillPACK, were randomly assigned to the treatment group with the chillPACK or to a comparison condition. Both groups were instructed to report their time spent completing activities intended to enhance their happiness. It was hypothesized that increases in psychological well-being and motivation to quit smoking from baseline to post-treatment would be greater in the treatment group compared to the comparison group. Although the hypothesized group differences over time were not supported, results showed improvements over time on measures of psychological well-being and motivation to quit smoking for all participants who completed the study. Results also showed relationships between minutes completing positive activities and satisfaction with life and motivation to quit smoking after the study period. Non-white participants who were relatively less stressed and higher in motivation to quit smoking prior to the study period were more likely to spend time completing positive activities. The findings from this study may improve our understanding of ways to: (a) increase psychological well-being and motivation to quit smoking among depressed smokers, (b) advance the design of specialized smoking cessation treatments for depressed smokers, and (c) decrease the considerable public health burden associated with depression, smoking, and the comorbidity of depression and smoking.