Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Geology and Geography

Committee Chair

Trevor Harris

Committee Co-Chair

Tim Carr

Committee Member

Tim Warner

Committee Member

Insu Hong

Committee Member

Rina Ghose


As subsurface features remain largely ‘out of sight, out of mind’, this has led to challenges when dealing with underground space and infrastructures and especially so for those working in GIS. Since subsurface infrastructure plays a major role in supporting the needs of modern society, groups such as city planners and utility companies and decision makers are looking for an ‘holistic’ approach where the sustainable use of underground space is as important as above ground space. For such planning and management, it is crucial to examine subsurface data in a form that is amenable to 3D mapping and that can be used for increasingly sophisticated 3D modeling. The subsurface referred to in this study focuses particularly on examples of both shallow and deep underground infrastructures. In the case of shallow underground infrastructures mostly two-dimensional maps are used in the management and planning of these features. Depth is a very critical component of underground infrastructures that is difficult to represent in a 2D map and for this reason these are best studied in three-dimensional space. In this research, the capability of 3D GIS technology and immersive geography are explored for the storage, management, analysis, and visualization of shallow and deep subsurface features.

Embargo Reason

Publication Pending