## Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

#### Title

Circuits and Cycles in Graphs and Matroids

Spring

2020

Dissertation

PhD

#### College

Eberly College of Arts and Sciences

Mathematics

Hong-Jian Lai

John Goldwasser

Rong Luo

Marjorie Darrah

Guodong Guo

#### Abstract

This dissertation mainly focuses on characterizing cycles and circuits in graphs, line graphs and matroids. We obtain the following advances.

1. Results in graphs and line graphs. For a connected graph G not isomorphic to a path, a cycle or a K1,3, let pc(G) denote the smallest integer n such that the nth iterated line graph Ln(G) is panconnected. A path P is a divalent path of G if the internal vertices of P are of degree 2 in G. If every edge of P is a cut edge of G, then P is a bridge divalent path of G; if the two ends of P are of degree s and t, respectively, then P is called a divalent (s, t)-path. Let l(G) = max{m : G has a divalent path of length m that is not both of length 2 and in a K3}. We prove the following. (i) If G is a connected triangular graph, then L(G) is panconnected if and only if G is essentially 3-edge-connected. (ii) pc(G) ≤ l(G) + 2. Furthermore, if l(G) ≥ 2, then pc(G) = l(G) + 2 if and only if for some integer t ≥ 3, G has a bridge divalent (3, t)-path of length l(G).

For a graph G, the supereulerian width μ′(G) of a graph G is the largest integer s such

that G has a spanning (k;u,v)-trail-system, for any integer k with 1 ≤ k ≤ s, and for any

u, v ∈ V (G) with u ̸= v. Thus μ′(G) ≥ 2 implies that G is supereulerian, and so graphs with

higher supereulerian width are natural generalizations of supereulerian graphs. Settling an open

problem of Bauer, Catlin in [J. Graph Theory 12 (1988), 29-45] proved that if a simple graph

G on n ≥ 17 vertices satisfy δ(G) ≥ n − 1, then μ′(G) ≥ 2. In this paper, we show that for 4

any real numbers a, b with 0 < a < 1 and any integer s > 0, there exists a finite graph family

F = F(a,b,s) such that for a simple graph G with n = |V(G)|, if for any u,v ∈ V(G) with

uv ∈/ E(G), max{dG(u), dG(v)} ≥ an + b, then either μ′(G) ≥ s + 1 or G is contractible to a

member in F. When a = 1,b = −3, we show that if n is sufficiently large, K3,3 is the only 42

obstacle for a 3-edge-connected graph G to satisfy μ′(G) ≥ 3. An hourglass is a graph obtained from K5 by deleting the edges in a cycle of length 4, and an

hourglass-free graph is one that has no induced subgraph isomorphic to an hourglass. Kriesell in [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, 82 (2001), 306-315] proved that every 4-connected hourglass-free line graph is Hamilton-connected, and Kaiser, Ryj ́aˇcek and Vr ́ana in [Discrete Mathematics, 321 (2014) 1-11] extended it by showing that every 4-connected hourglass-free line graph is 1- Hamilton-connected. We characterize all essentially 4-edge-connected graphs whose line graph is hourglass-free. Consequently we prove that for any integer s and for any hourglass-free line

graph L(G), each of the following holds. (i) If s ≥ 2, then L(G) is s-hamiltonian if and only if κ(L(G)) ≥ s + 2; (ii) If s ≥ 1, then L(G) is s-Hamilton-connected if and only if κ(L(G)) ≥ s + 3.

For integers s1, s2, s3 > 0, let Ns1,s2,s3 denote the graph obtained by identifying each vertex of a K3 with an end vertex of three disjoint paths Ps1+1, Ps2+1, Ps3+1 of length s1,s2 and s3, respectively. We prove the following results. (i)LetN1 ={Ns1,s2,s3 :s1 >0,s1 ≥s2 ≥s3 ≥0ands1+s2+s3 ≤6}. Thenforany N ∈ N1, every N-free line graph L(G) with |V (L(G))| ≥ s + 3 is s-hamiltonian if and only if κ(L(G)) ≥ s + 2. (ii)LetN2={Ns1,s2,s3 :s1>0,s1≥s2≥s3≥0ands1+s2+s3≤4}.ThenforanyN∈N2, every N -free line graph L(G) with |V (L(G))| ≥ s + 3 is s-Hamilton-connected if and only if κ(L(G)) ≥ s + 3. 2. Results in matroids. A matroid M with a distinguished element e0 ∈ E(M) is a rooted matroid with e0 being the root. We present a characterization of all connected binary rooted matroids whose root lies in at most three circuits, and a characterization of all connected binary rooted matroids whose root lies in all but at most three circuits. While there exist infinitely many such matroids, the number of serial reductions of such matroids is finite. In particular, we find two finite families of binary matroids M1 and M2 and prove the following. (i) For some e0 ∈ E(M), M has at most three circuits containing e0 if and only if the serial reduction of M is isomorphic to a member in M1. (ii) If for some e0 ∈ E(M), M has at most three circuits not containing e0 if and only if the serial reduction of M is isomorphic to a member in M2. These characterizations will be applied to show that every connected binary matroid M with at least four circuits has a 1-hamiltonian circuit graph.

COinS

#### DOI

https://doi.org/10.33915/etd.7613