Date of Graduation


Document Type



The purpose of this study was to identify sustainability criteria and indicators for evaluating sustainable ecotourism development in Taman Negara National Park (TNNP), Malaysia. This was an attempt to develop sustainability measurements for the evaluation of ecotourism from the theoretical concept of sustainable development. The Delphi method and public survey were used to solicit opinions from an interdisciplinary panel of Malaysian experts and public groups regarding suitable criteria and indicators of sustainability for TNNP. The objectives were to develop a methodology for identifying criteria and indicators, generating criteria and indicators most important for measuring sustainable ecotourism. development and initiating development of a sustainability evaluation procedure for TNNP. Three rounds of Delphi procedure and two rounds of public survey using questionnaires were used to converge and identify priority criteria and indicators. Overall, the methodology involved the identification, selection, and evaluation of measurable criteria and indicators of ecotourism sustainability. The results showed that the general public of TNNP was only partially knowledgeable about the concept of sustainable development. The public groups identified the conservation of natural heritage as the main meaning of sustainable ecotourism development. The important values of the park included the maintenance of ecological functions and providing life-support processes. The local tourists and stakeholders rated highly on the overall values of the park, but the foreign tourists provided significantly higher ratings for nature conservation and indigenous people uses of TNNP. The Public survey also revealed a total of 25 goals recommended for TNNP. The outcome of this iterative study was the identification of 15 criteria and 58 indicators of sustainable ecotourism development for TNNP. They encompass the component of economic, social, and environment that associated with sustainable development. Standard measurements were suggested for the criteria and indicators of tourism sustainability. These measurements were recommended as measurable standard for the criteria and indicators of sustainable tourism. The Delphi process provided a valuable framework for tapping experts' knowledge and public opinion on gathering and refining criteria and indicators of sustainability. The iterative public survey and the Delphi process all drew relevance with the issue of identifying criteria and indicators of sustainable ecotourism development in TNNP.