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This study traces the historical roots of Liberia's political, economic, and social institutions. It intends to apply a new historical perspective to the West African nation's history, and by identifying some of its critical problems, to provide an empirical guideline for the present and future generations of that country. The study's main theme is that Liberia's political, economic, and religious institutions, though shaped by other factors as well, were largely extensions of similar institutional values inherent in the American Colonization Society (ACS). To examine this proposition, the first two chapters of the study are addressed to the social backgrounds of the ACS and pre-Liberian society. This provides a comparative understanding of the above forces before their effects on Liberia. The next four chapters investigate the establishment and development of Liberia and how the ACS, together with other important factors such as the African reality and the world economy, affected the evolution of its political, economic, religious, and other institutions. These constitute the thrust of the study and present a revised assessment of the impact of the ACS, a theme which has been treated superficially or ignored completely in previous works. The conclusion reemphasizes the dominant theme that the formation of the social institutions in Liberia were profoundly influenced by the ACS and that these institutions continue to determine the historical development of that country. It is therefore inferred that unless Liberia radically modifies the legacy it inherited from the ACS, it will continue to be a victim of underdevelopment and susceptible to social violence.