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The purpose of this dissertation is (1) to develop a method for the analysis of simultaneous diatonic harmonic contexts, and (2) to apply this method of the analysis of selected musical examples from the early twentieth century that illustrate a variety of applications of this compositional feature. The procedures for the analyses of simultaneous diatonic harmonic contexts involve (1) parsing of compositions to locate simultaneous diatonic harmonic contexts, (2) analysis of the individual contexts, and (3) analysis of the interaction of the simultaneous contexts. The examples selected for the illustrations were composed by some of the earliest, well-known exponents of polytonal writing and are within the years 1912-1925. The composers represented are Bartok, Bloch, Honneger, Milhaud, Poulenc, Ravel, Stravinsky, and Szymanowski. In all the illustrations, there is a clarity of differentiation of the harmonic contexts that are simultaneous. The individual harmonic contexts typically have a clarity and simplicity that is strikingly austere in comparison to the extravagant chromaticism of much contemporary music. Each individual harmonic context maintains its independent scalar integrity and tonal function while it is simultaneous with another context. There is not an amalgamation or merging of the simultaneous contexts into a supercontext. There is a great diversity in the types of rendition of the various features of simultaneous harmonic contexts. For all the features, there is no discernable theoretical condition or constraint which directs the selection of a particular type of rendition within the available potential. The method of analysis for simultaneous harmonic contexts presented here systematically describes various basic features of simultaneous diatonic harmonic contexts. The method has potential use both for the study of individual compositions and for stylistic studies.