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There has long been a need for a study of Thomas Randolph who served intermittently as Elizabeth's agent (later as ambassador) in Scotland between the years I? 59 and 1586. This is a detailed study (in narrative style) of his involvement in Scottish affairs, based primarily on original manuscripts (largely found in the British Museum and the Public Record Office, London). Most of his letters are calendared and are readily available; thus they have been heavily relied upon for Anglo-Scottish studies. Unfortunately, some of the abstracts are inaccurate, misleading, or inadequate. Consequently, there have been misinterpretations. Moreover, Randolph is merely a name rather than a personality. It is hoped that this study will rectify the misconceptions as well as portray an engaging individual. It is further hoped that a clearer understanding of the machinery of Elizabethan diplomacy will emerge.