Date of Graduation
The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of using the hand-held calculator with secondary educable mentally retarded students (grades 7-9) to increase speed, accuracy, and motivation in working algorithmic problems in the four basic areas of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The rationale for the study was that the hand-held calculator might be a device that could free the EMR student from the laborious tasks necessary to master algorithms, so that time could be devoted to algorithm application and concept development. The population sample was comprised of 50 secondary EMR students (23 experimental and 27 control) from Wood County, West Virginia. Four intact class units (2 experimental and 2 control) were randomly selected from eight available junior high schools. The students ranged in IQ from 50-70 and came from middle to low socio-economic backgrounds. A multiple time-series design encompassing two pretests, a treatment, and two post-tests was implemented during twelve weeks. The treatment consisted of systematic calculator instruction in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division for the experimental group and traditional instruction in the same areas for the control group. An analysis of covariance was used for interpreting test results. The dependent variables were speed acquisition, speed retention, accuracy acquisition, and accuracy retention. The variables were further examined in relation to total group, grade level, sex, and separate algorithms with pretests being used as covariates. Motivation was examined prior to the administration of the first and second post-tests. The t test was used to determine significance. The analysis of covariance indicated the following differences: (a) the experimental group performed significantly better in multiplication and division for speed acquisition and retention; and (b) the experimental group performed significantly better in total group, grade level, sex, subtraction, multiplication, and division in accuracy acquisition and retention. The t test indicated a positive reaction toward using the calculator. The hand-held calculator appears to be a device that can positively affect multiplication and division speed. It also appears to affect the subtraction, multiplication, and division accuracy for EMR males and females in grades 7-9.
GOLDEN, CONSTANCE KIBBEE, "THE EFFECT OF THE HAND-HELD CALCULATOR ON MATHEMATICS SPEED, ACCURACY, AND MOTIVATION OF SECONDARY EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS (GRADES 7-9)." (1982). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 8922.