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Recently, health providers have been concerned with effective strategies for the treatment of smoking. Previous treatment efforts in this area have resulted in the suggestion for comprehensive treatment programs including the use of increased exercise activity. In addition, previous research has documented the need for improved methodology in the population assessed, reliability of outcome measures and adherence to treatment programs. The present study examined the effects of four conditions on the reduction of cigarette smoking on a community population. There were: Exercise-Alone, Self-Management training, Combination of Self-Management and Exercise, and a Delay of Treatment control condition. All subjects were pre- and posttested on physical fitness measures (sub-maximal exercise testing) and saliva thiocyanate analysis. Data suggested all treatment conditions improved at posttreatment over the control with a return to baseline smoking for all groups by the six-month follow-up. Exercise Alone did as well or better than the other two treatment conditions. Stress testing and thiocyanate analysis identified a number of subjects not in compliance to their self-report data. Thus, these findings have important implications for future smoking treatment research.