Date of Graduation
Eberly College of Arts and Sciences
Hayne W. Reese.
Both experimental and individual-differences approaches were used in the present study to investigate the effects of processing resources, cautiousness, and memory self-efficacy on adult age differences in free recall performance. A total of 80 young college students (mean age = 23 years) were used for the experimental manipulations; 40 older adults (mean age = 75 years) served as a comparison group. The experimental manipulations were based on a 2 (sex) by 2 (processing speed) by 2 (cautiousness) by 2 (working memory) mixed design. Cautiousness was manipulated by monetary incentive and punishment. Age-related reduction in working memory capacity was simulated by using a the concurrent digit load during learning. Age-related slowness was simulated by using words with multiple syllables. Participants' speed of information processing, working memory, memory self-efficacy were measured by standard tests. It was found that all three experimental manipulations produced similar effects on the younger adults' recall performance. In addition, the individual-differences analyses revealed that when speed and working memory were controlled, age group no longer predicted individual differences in recall performance. Age differences in free recall performance were mediated by speed and working memory.
Huang, Wei, "Processing resources, cautiousness, memory self -efficacy, and age differences in free recall" (1998). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 949.