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The study was a descriptive analysis of the cognitive processes of college students. The instruments used for data collection were the modified CPQPE, student demographic and thought questionnaires, and a teacher questionnaire asking them to rate initial and ending skill level, improvement, and the student cognitive processes measured on the CPQPE. The participants in the study were 151 college students enrolled in basic instruction bowling classes. The students were divided into three skill groups (high, low skill-high improvement, and low skill-low improvement) based on initial bowling averages and ending improvement. The results revealed that the total score and the self-regulation/strategy use component on the modified CPQPE were related to student perceptions of skill level and improvement at the time they took the CPQPE. For the skill groups, the high skill and the low skill-high improvement group showed the same results with the high improvement group also correlating with the confidence-efficacy/willingness to engage component. The results from the thoughts data revealed off-task thoughts were negatively correlated with actual improvement. Also, negative thoughts were inversely correlated with the student rating of their skill level at all three collection times. In addition, negative thoughts were also inversely related to future ratings of skill level. The results for the skill groups found that the high improvement group significantly reduced their negative thoughts from class 2 to class 8. For motivating thoughts, the high skill and the high improvement group greatly increased their number from class 2 to 4, while low improvement increased slightly. All groups showed the same pattern for skill outcome thoughts. For skill technique thoughts, the low improvement group declined from class 4 to class 8, while the high improvement group increased. Lastly, for off task thoughts, both the high skill and the low improvement groups increased from class 2 to 4 the declined to class 8. The high improvement group however remained the same across the collection times. The multiple regression for the low improvement group revealed that all the thought categories except for off task were significant predictors of improvement.