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Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 changed the government bureaucracy and dismantled the centrally controlled economic system. Directors of zapovedniki (strict nature preserves) and lespromkhozi (forest industry dependent communities) are experiencing a challenge to their ability to manage, protect and/or study the lands under their supervision. This study investigates how changes in the social-political system have affected the forests and protected areas in Central Siberia, and how managers have adapted to the current political and social climate. This investigation used case study methodology and three sources of empirical data; open-ended interviews, documentation from archival and secondary sources, and personal observation. The result is four articles addressing different facets of forest and protected area management in Central Siberia. The article, 'System in Peril,' reports biological and political threats to zapovedniki (strict nature preserves) and the solutions adopted by six managers. It concludes that the most immediate problem--a loss of federal funding--is resolved by a combination of city administrations, Krai ecological funds, university sponsored research and international NGO support. The second article "The 1995 Law on Specially Protected Natural Areas," provides an example of a fundamental change in federal policy. This landmark legislation is the first to delineate the legal rights and responsibilities for protected area employees. Article three, "Policy Convergence" compares zapovednik and wilderness system policies from the late 1800s until 1995. Although each nation started with different cultural interpretations and goals for their protected areas, the federal policy goals have converged since the 1970s. The last article "Predivinsk Lespromkhoz," investigates a forest dependant community and concludes that because of the demands of a market economy, the village needs a new spectrum of non-timber or value added products to augment raw timber exports.