Edward M. Bergman and Edward J. Feser
Industry clusters refer to the tight connections that bind certain firms and industries together in various aspects of common behavior, e.g., geographic location, sources of innovation, shared suppliers and factors of production, and so forth. Industry cluster concepts date from the last century, but they have captured the imagination of active policymakers and the serious attention of scholars only in the last decade of this century. Because clustering behavior is such a pervasive aspect of modern economies and global trade, it draws the attention of many different disciplines and benefits from their scholarship. Although a consideration of research on this topic might alone justify book-length treatment, industry cluster concepts are also powerful metaphors that are used routinely to guide industrial and regional development planning throughout the world.
Geoffrey J. D. Hewings
Input-output analysis is a method by which the flow of production can be traced among the various sectors of the economy, through to final demand or export. The most fundamental problem of input-output analysis is to calculate the necessary output levels of each industry required to achieve a final output. What is the effect upon the local economy from the introduction of a new firm? What are the economic linkages between regions and how is equilibrium between regions achieved? What if the supply of an input in one region becomes restricted through some bottleneck? Input-output analysis can be used to address these issues. This book will prove to be a valuable resource to students and practitioners of the planning sciences, including urban and regional economics, regional science, engineering, public administration, business management science, city and regional planning, as well as scientists in economic geography. SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHY SERIES, Grant Ian Thrall, editor.
Edgar M. Hoover and Frank Giarratani
Hoover, Edgar M., Frank Giarratani. An Introduction to Regional Economics. Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Scott Loveridge, 1999: Randall Jackson, 2020.
Leslie J. King
Abstract. Central Place Theory seeks to provide an explanation of the numbers, sizes, and locations of urban settlements in essentially rural, farming regions. Why is it, for example, that there are few large cities, many more towns, and an even larger number of small villages or hamlets in such regions? Why is it that the smaller places are located closer together and the larger ones further apart? What are the relations between the roles of the diﬀerent-sized urban settlements? How do these patterns and arrangements change over time and from one region to another? These are the sorts of questions addressed by central place theory. Kink, Leslie J. Central Place Theory. Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Grant Ian Thrall, 1985; Randall Jackson, 2020. Scientific Geography Series
William H. Miernyk
The first writers to treat economics systematically — Adam Smith and his immediate successors — dealt with the economy as a whole. In today’s terminology they were concerned with macroeconomics. Later economists, notably Alfred Marshall and his followers in the Neo-classical school, focused upon the household and the firm. They inaugurated the era of microeconomics which led to Chamberlin’s theory of monopolistic competition and Mrs. Robinson’s theory of imperfect competition. The Neo-classical economists and their successors analyzed the forces which result in economic equilibrium, but their approach was that of partial equilibrium, or the method of examining "one thing at a time." During the 1930s, under the influence of John Maynard Keynes, there was a revival of interest in aggregative economics. Keynesians drew on the work of both Classical and Neo-classical schools. Like the latter, they were concerned with the forces which result in equilibrium or disequilibrium, but they returned to the Classical tradition in their emphasis on the economy as a whole. The Neo-classical economists had devoted much of their attention to the theory of value - examination of the forces which determine prices under given market conditions. The Keynesians, however, were primarily concerned with the determinants of income and employment. Their system was based on broad aggregates: total employment, total consumption, total investment, and national income. Keynesian economists showed how these variables are related to one another, and how changes in one affect the rest. They were much less interested than the Neoclassical economists in examining the effects of a change in one variable on the assumption that all others remained fixed. In this sense the Keynesians were concerned with general rather than partial equilibrium. But neither the Neo-classical economists nor the Keynesians were directly concerned with economic interdependence, with the structure of the economy and the way in which its individual sectors fit together.
William A. Schaffer
This survey of regional input-output models and their use in impact analysis evolved from over twenty years of experience in constructing regional economic models and in teaching about them. Its objectives are to present this family of models in an easily understood format, to show that the models we use in economics are well-structured, and to provide a basis for understanding applications of these models in impact analysis. The models are presented in such a way that understanding the logic and algebra of the simplest economic-base model leads to an understanding of the only slightly more complex regional and interregional input-output models in common use today. The advanced models become matrix-algebra extensions of the simple models.
Michael J. Webber
In this book, Professor Michael Webber analyzes the strategy and pattern of the location of industrial production. After reviewing data sources and the history of manufacturing, Professor Webber discusses the principles that govern the location decisions of firms. It should be of particular interest to students of public policy analysis to read Webber’s arguments supporting the contention that industrial location incentives and tax policies have not been significant long-term factors of industrial location; rather, Professor Webber demonstrates that as transport costs have fallen, the main location factors have become labor and agglomeration. In turn, both labor and agglomeration are themselves dependent upon the general economic, political, and social system. Webber uses numerous data illustrations to support the theoretical arguments in this book. He concludes with three examples that illustrate his industrial location analysis: (l) the aircraft parts industry in New England; (2) the industrial decline in the United Kingdom; and (3) the location pattern of manufacturing within cities. The stress that Professor Webber places on the historical context of decisions and on the social production of labor and agglomeration characteristics are novel issues for an introductory treatment of location theory. -Grant Ian Thrall, SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHY SERIES Webber, Michael J. Industrial Location. Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Grant Ian Thrall, 1985; Randall Jackson, 2020.
Briassoulis, Helen. "Analysis of Land Use Change: Theoretical and Modeling Approaches". Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Scott Loveridge, 2000: Randall Jackson, 2019.
Randall W. Jackson, Geoffrey J.D. Hewings, Serge Rey, and Nancy Lozano-Gracia
Jackson, R., J.D. Hewings, S. Rey, and N. Lozano-Garcia, “Regional Development: Challenges, Methods, and Models”. Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Randall Jackson, 2019.
Steven B. McBride
McBride, Steven B. Site Planning and Design. Web Book of Regional Science. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Edited by Scott Loveridge, 1999: Randall Jackson, 2019.
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