Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences



Committee Chair

Daniel W. McNeil.


Women choose pharmacological approaches in addition to or in lieu of self-management to relieve childbirth pain for several reasons including availability, personal preference, medical necessity, and anticipation of high levels of pain during labor. When pain expectations result in (or are influenced by) pathologically high fear and anxiety during the antenatal period, a woman can suffer a myriad of negative effects that can include psychopathological status during pregnancy, a distressing birth experience, and postpartum distress. This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Childbirth Stages of Readiness Questionnaire (CSORQ) for use in prenatal obstetrical care to identify women's stage of readiness (i.e., Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, or Action/Maintenance) to utilize self-management methods to cope with discomfort and pain during labor and delivery. The original version of the CSORQ was revised to lower the reading level to make it more accessible to a variety of populations. Subsequent reliability (i.e., internal consistency and test-retest) and validity (i.e., convergent and discriminant) indices indicated that the CSORQ subscales has good psychometric properties. At the same time, the Contemplation subscale requires further revision in two of its items. Overall, in relation to childbirth, the CSORQ subscales correlated with pain expectations, anxiety, and self-efficacy. Implications are that the CSORQ can be used by obstetrical health professionals to assess and address concerns in pregnant women to enhance the birth experience and to facilitate the provision of treatment and referral.