Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences



Committee Chair

Julie Hicks Patrick

Committee Co-Chair

Amy Gentzler

Committee Member

Amy Herschell

Committee Member

Chad Pierskalla


Correlational and experimental studies have found evidence that connectedness to nature (CN) leads to increases in well-being. Higher CN relates to higher positive affect, lower negative affect, and better health (Herzog & Strevey, 2008; Korpela & Ylen, 2007; Mayer, Frantz, Bruehlman-Senecal, & Dolliver, 2009). Little research, though, has examined the relation of CN and well-being over time. With the lack of longitudinal data, it is impossible to assess how CN might be associated with well-being and health over a person's lifetime. This study is among the first to evaluate CN and well-being with three-time points. Final analyses were conducted on three times of measurement with sample sizes varying from 152 to 77. It was found that CN is a stable construct over time, with correlations ranging from r = .78 to r = .85. To further corroborate the evidence of stability, repeated measures analysis of variance show no significant differences between waves of CN, F (1, 60) = .45, p = .51. It was also found that CN was positively related to positive affect over time, with correlations ranging from r = .28 to r = .31. Lastly, it was found that covariates of age, gender, and location contribute to CN and the CN and well-being relation. This study advances the field in four important ways. First, the evidence shows that CN is related to well-being. Second, the evidence shows stability in CN, over at least a 2-year period. Third, predictors like age, gender, and location play a role in the examination of CN and well-being. Lastly, the current evidence shows support for both broaden-and-build and the ecological self theory in defining the CN and well-being relations.