Lijuan Wang

Date of Graduation


Document Type



A conventional heavy-duty truck PSAT model was validated and incorporated into the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The truck that was modeled was a conventional over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor, equipped with a 550 hp Caterpillar 3406E non exhaust gas circulation (EGR) engine and an 18-speed Roadranger manual transmission. A vehicle model was developed, along with the model validation processes. In the engine model, an oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions model and a fuel rate map for the Caterpillar 3406E engine were created based on test data. In the gearbox model, a shifting strategy was specified and transmission efficiency lookup tables were developed based on the losses information gathered from the manufacturer. As the largest mechanical accessory model, an engine cooling fan model, which estimates fan power demand, was integrated into the heavy-duty truck model. Experimental test data and PSAT simulation results pertaining to engine fuel rate, engine torque, engine speed, engine power and NOx were within 5% relative error. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various parameters (vehicle weights, coefficients of rolling resistance and the aerodynamic drag) on fuel consumption (FC) for the Peterbilt truck. The vehicle was simulated over five cycles which represent typical vehicle in-use behavior. Three contributions were generated. First, contour figures provided a convenient way to estimate fuel economy (FE) of the Peterbilt truck over various cycles by interpolating within the parameter values. Second, simulation results revealed that, depending on the circumstances and the cycle, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter value (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase FE, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). Third, the amount of the energy consumed by auxiliary loads was found to be highly dependent upon the driving cycles. The ratios between average auxiliary power and average engine power were found to be 71.0%, 17.1%, 15.3%, 12.4% and 11.43% for creep, transient, UDDS, cruise and HHDDT_s cycles, respectively. A hybrid electric bus (HEB) also was modeled. The HEB that was modeled was a New Flyer bus with ISE hybrid system, a Cummins ISB 260H engine and a single-reduction transmission. Information and data were acquired to describe all major components of the HEB. The engine model was validated prior to modeling of the whole vehicle model. The load-following control strategy was utilized in the energy management system. Experimental data and PSAT simulated results were compared over four driving schedules, and the relative percent of errors of the FC, FE, CO2 and NOx were all within 5% except for the FE and NOx of the Manhattan cycle, which were 6.93% and 7.13%, respectively. The high fidelity of this model makes it possible to evaluate the FE and NOx emissions of series hybrid buses for subsequent PSAT users.