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College of Education and Human Services


Curriculum & Instruction/Literacy Studies


This study examines instructional reasoning in an approximation of practice that simulates a teacher sitting down after class to examine students’ written work. The participants were prompted to attend to, interpret, and decide how to respond to student thinking contained in a piece of written work. Our purpose was to capture the additional cognitive work that teachers engage in. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified the most frequent types of instructional reasoning used by expert teachers just prior to engaging in a responsive deciding action about how to respond. We used the results of our analysis to present three illustrative cases of responsive instructional reasoning.

Source Citation

Lindstrom, D.; Selmer, S. Responsive Teaching and the Instructional Reasoning of Expert Elementary Mathematics Teachers. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 350.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article received support from the WVU Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.

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